When the face is lowered, the space between the brow and the eye is shortened,the tip of the nose is nearer the mouth, and the chin cuts well into the neck ; and as the ear is raised, the back line of the neck is thereby lengthened. The brows and mouth, overlaying somewhat convex surfaces, curve upwards, and a greater mass of hair is seen above the face.
The converse of all this is seen in Plate X. when the face is upturned.
The mass of hair is smaller above ; the eye is further from the brow ; the tip of the nose is nearer under the eye ; the brows and mouth curve downwards. The ear is lowered ; and consequently the neck is extended in front and contracted behind, and one sees somewhat below the chin.
The accompanying set will illustrate my points, but I would strongly advise you, after having considered this lesson, to copy whenever you can the beautiful drawings of heads by Holbein. Your knowledge of the drawing of the face and its features will be materially increased thereby.
The first in the set is a rough diagram of the construction of the eye; and I have made it because the student, judging by his average drawing and painting, seems to forget that the lids open and shut over a globe.