Painting 7

This mat is used mostly by plumbers. Its use requires a little experience. I ought to caution you never to scrape your work until you have placed a stout cardboard between the canvas and the stretcher, for the pressure will otherwise force up ineradicable ridges in those parts of the canvas that lie over the edges of the woodwork behind. Good pictures are frequently spoilt because of the lack of this precaution.
Your easel should be the best you can afford. Let it be light and run on good castors.
There are two methods of painting I wish you to learn. The one is painting in " grisaille" or monochrome, and subsequent glazing and scumbling with colour ; the other is direct colour reproduction. The former method needs but a very simple palette, the other a much richer one. I shall recommend a list from which the colours for either method may be selected, I think, with safety, avoiding inclusion in it of any pigments considered doubtful by the chemists, and including the least harmful among the evanescent ones, which however are essential.
These will be adequate for flesh painting and for most of the ordinary effects of colour.
I add a supplementary list which may be required for special purposes :—
These colours must not be touched with a steel palette knife, or they will go black. If they are included in your palette, use a horn or ivory palette knife. The same applies to Orange Cadmium, a useful colour, of which the Naples Yellows are now made. Raw Siena you will sometimes find useful, but there is some danger of its separating itself after a time from the lighter mixtures in which it may forma part. It is therefore wiser to -use it only when absolutely necessary. Yellow Ochre will answer most of the purposes for which the Siena is usually substituted. Burnt Siena is safe enough, but rarely needed. And then the various madders are perhaps necessary where rich reds are required ; but remember all the madders are to some extent evanescent, since they are largely composed of water.
Beware of Chromes and Emerald Green ; you will rarely require them. It is wiser in every respect to restrain your selection than to attempt
extraordinary effects which are not likely to last, and which may tempt you to overstep the proper limitations of your medium.
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